Hamedan is one of Iran’s main centers of civilization. It was built under the rule of the (700 B.C.).Like most other Iranian cities, Hamedan has seen many ups and downs throughout its history. It was capital of the Medes but was eventually ruined at the hands of Nebuchadrzzar. In Parthian times it was the summer seat of the king.
Hamedan was conquered by the Muslim army circa 644 A.D.in a decisive battle that took part at Nahavand. It became once again the capital under the Seljuk dynasty but was later ruined again by the Mongols. It was captured by the Ottomans in circa1725 but was returned to Iran soon after. Hamedan has raised many great poet, writer and philosopher, among them Baba Taher, poet and sufi who died in Hamedan city early 11th century A.D.; Einolghozat Hamedani who lived a mere 32 years but produced, in his short life, great works in poetry, philosophy, and Sufism. The tombs of Ebn-e-Sina (Avicenna), the great scientist, philosopher and physician, and of the contemporary poet, Aref Ghazvini, lie in the city of Hamedan.
This province lies in the west of Iran and covers an area of 19,547 km2. It is enclosed by the provinces of Zanjan and Qzvin on its north, Lorestan on the south, Kermanshahan and Kurdistan on the west and the central province on the east. The capital of this province bears the same name, and its other cities of importance are: Assadabad , Bahar , Kabudarahang , Nahavand and Razan and Toiserkan. Hamedan province has a population of some 1,677,957 a good part of which are engaged in agriculture, producing such goods as wheat, barley, walnuts and potato’s . Many of the inhabitants are involved in animal husbandry, both traditional and modern. The major industries of
Of this province are those of glass manufacturing; textiles, foodstuffs, chemicals, electrical, and metal production; non-metal mineral processing; and production, trough quarrying, of construction and decorative stones. The climate of the province, which is greatly influence by the Alvand range of mountains, is on the whole cool and windy, with cold winters and temperate summers. The minimum absolute temperature of the province is -35°C. The average temperature over a period of 30 years has been found to be 10.6°C; average relative humidity over the same period was, at 06:30 hours, 71% and at 12:30 hours, 41% average annual rainfall was, 337.2 mm; maximum rainfall on a single day, 52 mm; average number frosty days per year, 146; average number of sunny hours during the year, 2,754.7; and the maximum speed of the wind was 30 meters per second, blowing in the direction of 180°. The average wind speed is 4 meters per second.
Hamedan also has raised many a great poet, writer & philosopher, among them Baba Taher , poet and sufi who died in Hamedan city early 11th century . The tomp of Ebne Sina (Avicenna) , The great scientist , philosopher and physician , and of the contemporary poet,Aref Ghazvini lie in the city of Hamedan
MAJOR NATURAL FEATURES
The largest river in the province, The Gamasiab, passes through the provinces Kermanshahan , Lorestan , Ilam , and khouzestan where it is known as Karkheh .
The mineral water spring of Tangez provides gaseous water that contains bicarbonates of chlorine and is said to be effective in curing the disease of the digestive system, liver, stomach and the abdomens. The cave of Ali Sadr, 80 km north of the city of Hamedan, and close to the city of Kabudarahang is the largest and the most renowned cave in Iran and one of the most impressive in the world. Its length is estimated to be something between 11 and 17 km although it has not yet been entirely explored. It is collection of large “halls”. Clear and pure water covers the floor. Calcium carbonate sediments have given rise to the formation of staggeringly beautiful stalagmites hanging from the ceiling, the like of which is difficult to find anywhere in the world. The levels of light, temperature and relative humidity at any point in the cave, remain constant throughout the year. Tourists can visit the different parts of the cave by boat. This cave is the most visited (one million people a year) natural phenomenon of Iran. Sardkooh and Ghale joogh caves, and caves number1, 2 and 3 are among the other many caves of this province. This province has many undulations: mountains, plains and valleys, which provide the right conditions for the growth of many plants and vegetation. The green nature of this province attracts many tourists. For instance, the is forest close to the city of Nahavand which is a great favorite with those tourists who are in search of natural beauty.
The province has also many preserved areas where large number of protected species can be found, e.g. the wild goat, ram, fox, brown bear, weasel, as well as many birds such as the partridge. The Alvand mountain range is the provinces largest. Alvand peak, close to Hamedan city has a ski slope 4 km long, with an inclination of 25%. Chelnabaleghan mountain peak, 4200 m high, is the provinces highest. Kalaghlan 3500 m, Chaharghale, and peak Gholle Yekhchaal, 3580 m are other important mountains of the province.
THE HISTORICAL PLACES
Name: Hamedan Bazaar
Type: Bazaar. Description: The present bazaar was constructed in the Qajar era. It consist of 30 rastehs (section) and each rasteh also belongs to one guild .
Name: Gang Nameh
Type: A collection of inscriptions. Description: These inscriptions, which praise God and honor Darioush and KHashayar Shah of the Achaemenid era, have been carved on a rock in the three languages of old Persian , Babylonian and Ilami .
Name: Baba Taher Tomb
Type: Mosque. Description: The present tomb was constructed in 1970, instead of the former tomb. The architecture of this tomb is a combination of old and new style, which makes it an impressive and remarkable monument
Name: Jame Mosque
Type: Mosque. Description: This mosque displays exquisite tile work and has a striking eiven.
Name: Faras Faj Bridge
Type: Bridge. Description: This old bridge is located in the southeastern part of Faras Faj village.
Name: Imamzadeh Azna
Type: Shrine. Description: This shrine displays exquisite brick work.
Name: Heghmataneh Palace
Type: an ancient palace. Description: This ancient palace dates back to the median era and Herodotus, the renowned historian, has referred to it in his writings.
Name: Alavian Dome
Type: Tomb. Description: The impressive plaster and tile works and brick inscriptions of this tomb make it one of the most prominent historic monuments of Hamedan.
Hamedan: Pole Shekasteh (Broken Bridge), Skandars Tomb, Stone Lion, Estromerdukhay Tomb, Ghorban Tower, Shahbaziyan House.
Malayer: Yazdgerd’s Castle, Wooden Castle, Haj Safe Allah’s Tomb.
Nahavand: Giyan Ancient Hill, Baba Pir Tomb, Jame mosque, Agha Torab’s Bath House
Toiserkan: Shah Abbasi Caravanserai, Zangeneh Mosque , Razi-Al-Din Artimani’s Tomb
Poetry and ceramic making are the major handicrafts of this province, most of which are exported to other parts of Iran and the world. As in most other provinces of Iran, carpet weaving is also current in this province. Kilim weaving is another handicrafts of this region .