The climate of this province, under the influence of the Caspian Sea, is usually mild and humid, but in the north eastern parts, where the heights of the Alborz mountains decreases, this humidity declines and the weather gradually changes in to semi-dry climate. The average temperature in Gorgan is 19.5°C in spring, 26.9°C in summer, 15.9°C in fall and 8.4°C in winter. The average temperature in the province is 17.6°C, average relative humidity at 06:30 hours is %79 and at 12:30 hours %58; average annual rainfall is 609 mm per year; average number of frosty days 15.5; average number of hours of sunshine over year, 1995; and the maximum wind speed is 30 meters per second, bellowing in the direction of 270°.
The province of Golestan is about 20,893 km2 in area, and is located in the northeast of Iran, south of the Caspian Sea. The province of Khorasan, Mazandaran and Semnan are situated on the east, west and south of Golestan, respectively. Its capital is the city of Gorgan. Other major cities of this province are: Bandar Turkoman, Ali Abad Katoul, Gonbad Kavoos, kord Kouy and Minoo Dasht. Golestan province was previously a part of the province of Mazandaran. According to the census made in the year 1996-97, the population of this province was then 1,426,288 people. The Turkoman tribe who inhabit the north of the plain of Gorgan are the largest tribe of Golestan province. With a moderate climate and fertile land, Golestan province is one of the most importantly province of Iran, as regards to agricultural cultivation and animal husbandry. A large number of factories, engaged in spinning, woodwork, dairy products,… operate in this province.
Major natural features
Major rivers: Gorgan River, 300 km long, originates in Khorasan, and after passing north of the city of Gorgan, it goes through Gonbad Kavoos and Gorgan plain to pour in to the Caspian Sea. Its maximum rate of flow is 60 m3 per second; and the average flow rate is 8.5 m3 in sec.
The Atrak too originates in Khorasan and ends in the Caspian Sea. With length of about 600 km, it is one of the largest of Iran’s river. The area of the basin of this river is about 285,000 sq km. because of its natural conditions and geographical position, the province has a large number of other rivers, notably: Agh Band, Dahaneh, Gharesou , Ramiyan and Madar sou. The Loh waterfall, which is one of the most attractive waterfalls in Iran, is located in a small county of Minoo dasht, adjacent to Golestan Forest-park. Gilan has the benefit of the impressive Alborz Mountains, and large expanses of greenery, forests, Rivers, waterfalls, etc. so it has excellent potential for tourism. Golestan Forest-Park, is situated between the cities of Gonbad Kavoos in Golestan and Bojnood in Khorasan, and possesses many different kinds of plant and animal species and a very pleasant natural environment. It is considered to be one of the most attractive forest-parks of Iran, possibly the world. Naharkhoran forest has facilities for receiving tourists, and absorbs thousands of visitors from Iran and other parts of the world, each year. The forest-parks of Gharnabad and Ghorogh in Gorgan and Deland in Gonbad Kavoos are other beautiful forest-parks of this province.
Gomishan Marsh, 60 km northwest of Gorgan, offers a wide collection of different types of aquatic plants, and rare birds. The eight Agh Ghola-Atrak swamps and lagoons are the habitat of numerous aquatic species and rare birds. The Alborz heights separate Golestan, Gilan and Mazandaran province from the central Iranian plateau. This great range of mountains runs in parallel to the Caspian Sea, and on its north, close to the cities, like many green forest. A number of important mountains of the Alborz range are situated in Golestan province including:
Gav Koshan whose peak is 3,813 m above sea level, the south of Gorgan; Jahan Nama, 3,086 m high; Ghare Ghaland , 3,039 m; Tal Anbar,3,030m ansZilan, 2,810 m.
Gorgan Museum: Museum of archeology and anthropology
Name: Gonbade-e Qabus Column/Tower
Type: Tomb, Description: this brick building is one of the most significant buildings of the 10th century A.D., as regards beauty and architectural style. Despite the passage of 1,000 years, this monument still enjoys stability and strength, and has height of 55m. It is the tomb of Ghaboos-ebn Voshmgir.
Name: Shasaman palace
Type: palace. Description: This palace was the winter residence of Amir Teymour (Tamerlane)
Name: Tower of Radkan
Type: Tower and Tomb. Description: This ancient monument is 35 m high and is situated at a distance of 44 km from kord kouy.
Name: Tu Rang Hill
Type: An ancient hill. Description: A large number of earthenware objects and other items have been found in this hill dating back to about 5,000 years ago.
Name: Horse-Shoe Makers’ Bazaar
Type: old bazaar. Description: The exact age of this bazaar is not clearly known. From the point of view of its architectural style and verity of products traded in this bazaar, it is considered as one of the important markets of the north of Iran.
Name: Jame Mosque (Friday mosque)
Type: mosque. Description: This mosque has a wooden pulpit that is adorned with remarkable inscriptions.
Name: Agh Ghola Bridge
Type: Historic monuments. Description: this bridge has height of 74 m, and lies 18 km north of Gorghan
Name: Imamzadeh Noor
Type: shrine. Description: This tomb of Imam Musa Kazem’s son, Eshagh. People from different parts of the north of Iran go there on pilgrimage.
Gorgan: Golshan Mosque, Imam Hasan Asgari Mosque, Imamzadeh Roshan, Sardar School, Eskandari Dam ,Agha Mohammad Khan palace,
Torkoman Port: Tomb of Makhtoom Gholi Faraghi, Ishan School
Gonbad Kavoos: Friday bazaar
Minoo dasht: Maran castle
Carpet weaving is one of the most significant crafts of Golestan province. Turkoman carpets, with distinctly original designs the completely differ from other parts.