Yazd City: This City, the capital of Yazd province is 1,215 m above sea level and, lies at a distance of 677 km from Tehran. Because it lies at the center of Iran, far from the borders, Yazd has been in the past less often subject to aggression of invaders than the other cities of Iran. So, a large number of scientists and Sufis chose this city as their place of residence. Since there are a number of sites in this city which cannot be found anywhere else in Iran, Yazd is called”the bridge of Iran’s desert”. One of the essential features of Yazd is its baadgirs or natural ventilation systems, such that Yazd has been named “the city of baadgirs”. These baadgirs make the warm weather of summer tolerable for the families at home.
Yazd province is located in the central regions of Iran, and covers an area of 73,467 km. This province is surrounded by Isfahan on the north and northwest, Khorasan on the northeast, Kerman on the southeast and Fars on the southwest. The capital of this province is the ancient city of Yazd. Other major towns of this province are Abar Kouh, Ardakan, Bafgh, Mehriz, Meybod, and Taft. According to the census carried out in 1996, the population of this province was then 750,769. Although the majority of its people are Moslem, this province has been the center of Zoroastrianism since a long time ago. It fire-temples attracts the followers of this region from all over Iran and the rest of the world. Because Yazd is located on the borders of the desert and suffers from a shortage of rainfall, it does not have prosperous agriculture. The old irrigation system of this region is in the form of underground water conduits known as “qanats”. This system directs part of the water which is available at the feet of the mountains, to the city as well as to the rural areas for agricultural use. Major agricultural products of this province are pistachios, pomegranates, almonds and cotton. It is one of the richest provinces as regards mineral deposits such as iron, uranium, lead and zinc. It is also rich in gypsum. Amongst the important industries of Yazd one can mention the textile, plastic, rubber, chemical, hygienic, electrical and electronic, fiber optics and tile industries. The province is situated on the outskirts of the desert, far from the sea. It therefore has little rainfall and is on the whole dry and warm. However, the province has highlands and mountains where humidity is somewhat higher and the temperature lower. The average temperature of this province is 22.7°C in spring, 29.6°C in summer, 14.6°C in autumn and 8°C in winter. The average annual temperature is 17.9°C; average relative humidity at 06:30 hours, 51% and at 12:00 hours, 35% average annual rainfall is 140.3 mm maximum amount of rainfall on a single day, 41 mm; average number of days with temperature below 0°C, 49.6; average number of sunny hours over the entire year, 2,992.7; and maximum wind speed, 25 meters per second, blowing in the direction of 270°.
Major Natural Features
The desert is considered as the predominant natural feature of this province. There are a number of major deserts in Yazd each of which has its particular attractions. Desert vegetation, flowing sands, mirages and old caravanserais fascinate any visitors. Abarghoo and Ardakan deserts are the major deserts of this region. Although Yazd province is not rich in rivers and water, it has regions with pleasant climates on the slopes of Shirkouh. The green valleys and springs that offer plenty of cool water are beautiful, and provide natural spots for recreation. Shirkouh, whose peak is more than 4000 m above sea level, is the highest mountain of the region.
Mirror and Lighting Museum: Mirror and lighting appliances are put on display in this museum.
Natural Sciences Museum: Museum of stuffed animals.
Ardakan Museum: museum of archeology and anthropology
Like other regions of Iran, carpet weaving is considered as one of the essential industries of Yazd. In addition to carpet weaving, weaving of other textiles like cashmere, handkerchiefs, blankets, tablecloths,… are important handicrafts of this province. The high quality tiles of Yazd enjoy great fame. Its earthenware utensils are very much favored by Iranians.